Four Quartets. Una exploración poética de la música callada del tiempo – II / East Coker – Tomás García

Four Quartets. Una exploración poética de la música callada del tiempo – II / East Coker – Tomás García

En enero de 1939, Eliot anunció que la edición de The Criterion, la revista que él había estado editando desde 1922, sería interrumpida. En su último editorial, Eliot escribió, haciendo inevitable referencia al empeoramiento de la situación política mundial, lo siguiente:

«In the present state of public affairs -which had induced in myself a depression of spirits so different from any other experience of fifty years as to be a new emotion- I no longer feel the enthusiasm necessary to make a literary review what it should be.» (1)

No obstante, no se trataba tan sólo de una mera cuestión, si se quiere, «psicológica», de una coyuntural pérdida de entusiasmo en relación con el desempeño de tareas previamente ilusionantes. Era algo más profundo, algo que estaba en el aire. Eliot compartía con otros tantos intelectuales y pensadores de la época el sentimiento de que las tradiciones fundamentales de la civilización occidental (ideológicas, estéticas, teológicas) estaban desgastadas, erosionadas, y de que había que ir hacia adelante, más allá de ellas, en un intento de renovación y revitalización de los significados de las palabras y del significado de las cosas.

Ese movimiento de superación no tendría por qué ser, sin embargo, una desorientada huida hacia adelante, sino, como lo fue en el caso de Eliot (y en el de otros), un «paso atrás», un retorno a las raíces.

Esto explica que, ya en 1927, Eliot, adoptando la nacionalidad británica, se convirtiera al anglicanismo y se integrara, a todos los efectos, en la Iglesia de Inglaterra. De hecho, sin entrar en más detalles de determinados aspectos de su biografía que no son de interés aquí (y que alimentan constantemente en algunos el deseo de crear un «caso Eliot»), después de separarse de su mujer, Vivien Haigh-Wood, decidió trasladarse a vivir a una residencia para clérigos de Londres, en Gloucester Road, en donde rezaba cada día antes de iniciar su jornada de trabajo en la Editorial Faber & Faber, siendo, además, mayordomo de fábrica de su parroquia, St Stephen`s Gloucester Road. Y en esa residencia siguió viviendo hasta que, desde 1946 hasta 1957, compartió un piso con su amigo John Davy Hayward, en silla de ruedas debido a una distrofia muscular, en el número 19 de Carlyle Mansions (Chelsea).

Sin embargo, el «paso atrás» que Eliot pretendía dar -y que podría recordar perfectamente al heideggeriano «Schritt zurück» – iba más allá aún, «más atrás», hasta los orígenes mismos de la fundación del Nuevo Mundo (desde una perspectiva anglosajona, claro está), hasta sus ancestros, hasta Andrew Eliott (o Elyot), quien, en 1669, partió desde East Coker, Somerset, hacia Salem, Massachusetts, realizando un peligroso viaje de navegación de tres meses a través del Atlántico Norte. Ahí estaba el espejo: del mismo modo que su antepasado, que fue capaz –nel mezzo del cammin della [sua] vita, por decirlo parafraseando a Dante- de arriesgarse, de romper y recomenzar de nuevo en un «nuevo mundo», también él -«in the middle of the way»- podía ( y debía) recomenzar de nuevo, y con ello, tal vez, contribuir en su condición de escritor, de intelectual, a la renovación de la tradición occidental.

Por ello, en agosto de 1937, Eliot visitó East Coker y subió hasta la iglesia de St Michael, en donde reposan hoy en día sus cenizas, con la intención de reencontrarse con sus orígenes y volver a partir.

 

East Coker Sign Post

 

East Coker está situado en medio de la exuberante campiña de Somerset, al oeste de Londres, en el camino de Salisbury a Exeter, muy cerca de Bournemouth. La iglesia de St Michael se asienta en una colina que domina las casas de la villa y el paisaje que se extiende más allá.

East Coker

East Coker

I

In my beginning is my end. In succession
Houses rise and fall, crumble, are extended,
Are removed, destroyed, restored, or in their place
Is an open field, or a factory, or a by-pass.
Old stone to new building, old timber to new fires,
Old fires to ashes, and ashes to the earth
Which is already flesh, fur and faeces,
Bone of man and beast, cornstalk and leaf.
Houses live and die: there is a time for building
And a time for living and for generation
And a time for the wind to break the loosened pane
And to shake the wainscot where the field-mouse trots
And to shake the tattered arras woven with a silent motto.

In my beginning is my end. Now the light falls
Across the open field,, leaving the deep lane
Shuttered with branches, dark in the afternoon,
Where you lean against a bank while a van passes,
And the deep lane insists on the direction
Into the village, in the elctric heat
Hypnotised. In a warm haze the sultry light
Is absorbed, not refracted, by grey stone.
The dahlias sleep in the empty silence.
Wait for the early owl.

In that open field
If you do not come too close, if you do not come too close,
On a summer midnight, you can hear the music
Of the weak pipe and the little drum
And see them dancing around the bonfire
the association of man and woman
In daunsinge, signifying matrimonie˜
A dignified and commodious sacrament.
Two and two, necessarye coniunction,
Holding eche other by the hand or the arm
Whiche betokeneth concorde. Round and round the fire
Leaping through the flames, or joined in circles,
Rustically solemn or in rustic laughter
Lifting heavy feet in clumsy shoes,
Earth feet, loam feet, lifted in country mirth
Mirth of those long since under earth
Nourishing the corn. Keeping time,
Keeping the rhythm in their dancing
As in their living in the living seasons
The time of the seasons and the constellations
The time of milking and the time of harvest
The time of the coupling of man and woman
And that of beasts. Feet rising and falling.
Eating and drinking. Dung and death.

Dawn points, and another day
Prepares for heat and silence. Out at sea the dawn wind
Wrinkles and slides. I am here
Or there, or elsewhere. In my beginning.

II

What is the late November doing
With the disturbance of the spring
And creatures of the summer heat,
And snowdrops writhing under feet
And hollyhocks that aim too high
Red into grey and tumble down
Late roses filled with early snow?
Thunder rolled by the rolling stars
Simulates triumphal cars
Deployed in constellated wars
Scorpion fights against the Sun
Until the Sun and Moon go down
Comets weep and Leonids fly
Hunt the heavens and the plains
Whirled in a vortex that shall bring
The world to that destructive fire
Which burns before the ice-cap reigns.

That was a way of putting it – not very satisfactory:
A periphrastic study in a worn-out poetical fashion,
Leaving one still with the intolerable wrestle
With words and meanings. The poetry does not matter.
It was not (to start again) what one had expected.
What was to be the value of the long looked forward to,
Long hoped for calm, the autumnal serenity
And the wisdom of age? Had they deceived us,
Or deceived themselves, the quiet-voiced elders,
Bequeathing us merely a receipt for deceit?
The serenity only a deliberate hebetude,
The wisdom only the knowledge of dead secrets
Useless in the darkness into which they peered
Or from which they turned their eyes. There is, it seems to us,
At best, only a limited value
In the knowledge derived from experience.
The knowledge inposes a pattern, and falsifies,
For the pattern is new in every moment
And every moment is a new and shocking
Valuation of all we have been. We are only undeceived
Of that which, deceiving, could no longer harm.
In the middle, not only in the middle of the way
but all the way, in a dark wood, in a bramble,
On the edge of a grimpen, where is no secure foothold,
And menaced by monsters, fancy lights,
Risking enchantment. Do not let me hear
Of the wisdom of old men, but rahter of their folly,
Their fear of fear and frenzy, their fear of possession,
Of belonging to another, or to others, or to God.
The only wisdom we can hope to acquire
Is the wisdom of humility: humility is endless.

The houses are all gone under the sea.

The dancers are all gone under the hill.

III

O dark dark dark. They all go into the dark,
The vacant interstellar spaces, the vacant into the vacant,
The captains, merchant bankers, eminent men of letters,
The generous patrons of art, the statesmen and the rulers,
Distinguished civil servants, chairmen of many committees,
Industrial lords and petty contractors, all go into the dark,
And dark the Sun and Moon, and the Almanach de Gotha
And the Stock Exchange Gazette, the Directory of Directors,
And cold the sense and lost the motive of action.
And we all go with them, into the silent funeral,
Nobody’s funeral, for there is no one to bury.
I said to my soul, be still, and let the dark come upon you
Which shall be the darkness of God. As, in a theatre,
The lights are extinguished, for the scene to be changed
With a hollow rumble of wings, with a movement of darkness on darkness,
And we know that the hills and the trees, the distant panorama
And the bold imposing facade are all being rolled away-
Or as, when an underground train, in the tube, stops too long between stations
And the conversation rises and slowly fades into silence
And you see behind every face the mental emptiness deepen
Leaving only the growing terror of nothing to think about;
Or when, under ether, the mind is conscious but conscious of nothing-
I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope
For hope would be hope for the wrong thing; wait without love,
For love would be love of the wrong thing; there is yet faith
But the faith and the love and the hope are all in the waiting.
Wait without thought, for you are not ready for thought:
So the darkness shall be the light, and the stillness the dancing.
Whisper of running streams, and winter lightning.
The wild thyme unseen and the wild strawberry,
The laughter in the garden, echoed ecstasy
Not lost, but requiring, pointing to the agony
Of death and birth.

You say I am repeating
Something I have said before. I shall say it again.
Shall I say it again? In order to arrive there,
To arrive where you are, to get from where you are not,
You must go by a way wherein there is no ecstacy.
In order to arrive at what you do not know
You must go by a way which is the way of ignorance.
In order to possess what you do not possess
You must go by the way of dispossession.
In order to arrive at what you are not
You must go through the way in which you are not.
And what you do not know is the only thing you know
And what you own is what you do not own
And where you are is where you are not.

Saint Michael Church – East Coker

 

IV

The wounded surgeon plies the steel
That quesions the distempered part;
Beneath the bleeding hands we feel
The sharp compassion of the healer’s art
Resolving the enigma of the fever chart.

Our only health is the disease
If we obey the dying nurse
Whose constant care is not to please
But to remind us of our, and Adam’s curse,
And that, to be restored, our sickness must grow worse.

The whole earth is our hospital
Endowed by the ruined millionaire,
Wherein, if we do well, we shall
Die of the absolute paternal care
That will not leave us, but prevents us everywhere.

The chill ascends from feet to knees,
The fever sings in mental wires.
If to be warmed, then I must freeze
And quake in frigid purgatorial fires
Of which the flame is roses, and the smoke is briars.

The dripping blood our only drink,
The bloody flesh our only food:
In spite of which we like to think
That we are sound, substantial flesh and blood-
Again, in spite of that, we call this Friday good.

V

So here I am, in the middle way, having had twenty years-
Twenty years largely wasted, the years of l’entre deux guerres-
Trying to use words, and every attempt
Is a wholy new start, and a different kind of failure
Because one has only learnt to get the better of words
For the thing one no longer has to say, or the way in which
One is no longer disposed to say it. And so each venture
Is a new beginning, a raid on the inarticulate,
With shabby equipment always deteriorating
In the general mess of imprecision of feeling,
Undisciplined squads of emotion. And what there is to conquer
By strength and submission, has already been discovered
Once or twice, or several times, by men whom one cannot hope
To emulate – but there is no competition –
There is only the fight to recover what has been lost
And found and lost again and again: and now, under conditions
That seem unpropitious. But perhaps neither gain nor loss.
For us, there is only the trying. The rest is not our business

Home is where one starts from. As we grow older
the world becomes stranger, the pattern more complicated
Of dead and living. Not the intense moment
Isolated, with no before and after,
But a lifetime burning in every moment
And not the lifetime of one man only
But of old stones that cannot be deciphered.
There is a time for the evening under starlight,
A time for the evening under lamplight
(The evening with the photograph album).
Love is most nearly itself
When here and now cease to matter.
Old men ought to be explorers
Here or there does not matter
We must be still and still moving
Into another intensity
For a further union, a deeper communion
Through the dark cold and the empty desolation,
The wave cry, the wind cry, the vast waters
Of the petrel and the porpoise. In my end is my beginning.

[East Coker – Read by Paul Scofield – Recitado por Paul Scofield. BBC Radio Collection]

Panorama from St Michael [East Coker]

_______

El texto de East Coker procede de T. S. Eliot – Four Quartets. Faber & Faber, Londres, 1994, 1959, 1979, 1995, 2001.

 

 

Tomás García

Notas

  1. S. Eliot, «Last Words», Criterion 18, no. 71 (January 1939): 274.

 

 

La lectura recitada de East Coker a cargo de Paul Scofield ha sido extraída del CD T. S. Eliot: The Waste Land & Four Quartets – BBC Radio Collection – [BBC Audiobooks – ISBN: 0-563-52335-2]

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Categories: Literatura

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