Porque la vida no basta – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Porque la vida no basta – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Porque la vida no basta

***

 

 

Retrato de Fernando Pessoa – José Almada de Negreiros [1954]

***

 

“(…) Es hora de dejar este teatro de imágenes que llamamos la vida, si supiera las cosas que he visto con los anteojos del alma, he visto los contrafuertes de Orión, allí arriba en el espacio infinito, he caminado con estos pies terrestres por la Cruz del Sur, he atravesado noches infinitas como un cometa luciente, los espacios interestelares de la imaginación, la voluptuosidad y el miedo, y he sido hombre, mujer, anciano, niña, he sido las multitudes de las grandes avenidas de las capitales de Occidente, he sido el plácido Buda de Oriente de quien envidiamos la calma y la sabiduría, he sido yo mismo y los otros, todos los otros que podía ser, he conocido honores y deshonores, entusiasmos y desalientos, he cruzado ríos e inaccesibles montañas, he mirado plácidos rebaños y he recibido en la cabeza el sol y la lluvia, he sido una hembra en celo, el gato que juega en la calle, he sido el sol y la luna, y todo porque la vida no basta”.

Esta enumeración caótica que nos ofrece la sensación de lo diverso e inmenso que es el mundo, y que se asemeja al descubrimiento de El Aleph de Borges, es del escritor Antonio Tabucchi, que fue Catedrático de Lengua Portuguesa en Italia y una de las máximas autoridades mundiales en la obra de Fernando Pessoa. El fragmento citado pertenece a un divertido relato titulado Los últimos tres días de Fernando Pessoa, en el que recrea y fabula la despedida del poeta de sus heterónimos y de las personas más importantes de su vida.

El apellido “Pessoa” se asocia no sin razón a uno de los grandes poetas del siglo XX, junto con Rilke, Thomas Stearns Eliot, Juan Ramón Jiménez… “Pessoa” significa en portugués “persona”. Sin embargo fue mucho más que ello, fue el creador de una original galaxia de heterónimos (más de un centenar), que no son pseudónimos (falsos nombres), sino otros yoes, multitud de personalidades que muchas veces no se pueden desarrollar a causa de prejuicios sociales u otras circunstancias que las abortan, pero que en el singular caso de Pessoa llegaron a poseer un nombre, un estilo, un pensamiento propio: Alberto Caeiro, el bucólico y sensacionista, Ricardo Reis, el clásico estoico y epicúreo, Álvaro de Campos, el vanguardista…

Los heterónimos tuvieron un origen que no nos debe de resultar extraño: “Tuve siempre, desde niño, la necesidad de aumentar el mundo con personalidades ficticias, sueños míos rigurosamente construidos (…) Tendría no más de cinco años y, niño aislado como estaba y sin querer dejar de estarlo, ya me acompañaban algunas de las figuras de mis sueños -un tal capitán Thiebaut, un tal Chevalier de Pas- (…) Esta tendencia no pasó con la infancia, sino que se desarrolló en la adolescencia, arraigó en la mocedad, y se ha convertido finalmente en la forma natural de mi espíritu. (…) Hoy soy el punto de reunión de una pequeña humanidad sólo mía”.

Afortunadamente, lo último es inexacto: esa pequeña humanidad es de dominio público y universal, puesto que se trata de uno de los grandes poetas-pensadores del siglo XX. Aún más, fue un gran experimentador y un introductor esencial de las vanguardias artísticas en Lisboa. El Museo Reina Sofía de Madrid le dedicó una amplia exposición a esta menos conocida faceta suya durante este año, en el que se cumplen 130 años de su aniversario: Pessoa. Todo arte es una forma de literatura.
Tengo para mí que la creación de esa galaxia de heterónimos como su experimentalismo vanguardista obedecen a un motivo que se encuentra en el corazón de la literatura y el arte: el deseo de abrazar y ser todas las formas de vida posible… Aristóteles había sostenido que el ser humano al percibir y entender otros cuerpos se altera en cierto modo como ellos.

Este deseo de abrazar y ser todas las formas de vida posible es una ambición que comparte Pessoa con otros grandes poetas que tienen a Walt Whitman como una de sus principales influencias: Saint-John Perse, Jorge Luis Borges, Pablo Neruda, Octavio Paz. El ser humano se encuentra dividido por múltiples partes, pues por un lado es finito y contingente, pero por otro lado tiene una sed infinita. Una de las formas de compensar esta interminable desproporción entre la realidad y el deseo es la creación. Otra es la experiencia de leer.

A pesar de una corta existencia llena de sin sabores, no puedo imaginar que Fernando Pessoa fuera pobre en el sentido más decisivo para la vida. Aquella extraordinaria cabeza debía de estar continuamente dando luz, de parto, y con esos pensamientos cada día podía ser una aventura. En 1914 comenzó a arrojar hojas escritas dentro de un baúl, proceso que solo interrumpió su muerte, en 1935. Esas hojas, unidas, componen uno de los diarios más deslumbrantes del siglo XX, y sin duda una de las obras maestras de la literatura, Libro del desasosiego.

Porque la vida no basta, soñamos, de noche y de día, procurando cambiar al menos en nuestra imaginación cómo fue la implacable realidad; porque la vida no basta creamos, que es otra forma dirigida de soñar; porque la vida no basta construimos utopías, de las que a veces nos convertimos en prisioneros, paradójicamente. Porque la vida no basta, leemos. Es acaso la experiencia que más se asemeja a la máxima aspiración del poeta: “ser todo de todas las maneras posibles”.

 

***

Sebastián Gámez Millán

Autor
Categories: Libros, libres

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