Santa Teresa de Jesús (1515-1582): las reformas del mundo y el castillo interior – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Santa Teresa de Jesús (1515-1582): las reformas del mundo y el castillo interior – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Santa Teresa de Jesús (1515-1582): las reformas del mundo y el castillo interior

 

***

“Conócete en mí”

Francisco de Zurbarán – Santa Teresa de Jesús [1650 – Sacristía Mayor -Catedral de Sevilla]

***

 

A los siete años le fascinó la lectura de las vidas de santos e intentó huir de su casa. Más tarde se aficionó a los libros de caballerías. Y antes de cumplir los veinte años, impulsada por la lectura de las Confesiones de san Agustín, huyó de su casa y entró en un convento de la orden de los carmelitas. En 1562, deseosa de reformar la orden, fundó el primer convento, el de San José de Ávila. A pesar de su débil estado de salud y de los severos ejercicios ascéticos a los que se sometía, esta mujer andarina de carácter abierto y con coraje fundó multitud de conventos, sobre todo en Castilla y Andalucía.

De estas empresas y reformas dio cuenta en el Libro de las fundaciones, donde describe la fundación de dieciocho conventos y su actividad, además de hechos de su vida. Pero aunque estas empresas y reformas formen parte decisiva de su existencia, el legado de santa Teresa perdura especialmente por otras obras suyas donde describe sus experiencias ascético-místicas. Si su compañero de la orden carmelita, san Juan de la Cruz, representa una de las cimas de la poesía mística universal, santa Teresa representa la cima de la prosa mística española y una de las cumbres de la literatura religiosa mundial. Fue beatificada en 1614, canonizada en 1922 y declarada Doctora de la Iglesia en 1970.

En Camino de perfección procura mostrar a las monjas carmelitas el camino de perfección de la vida ascética. La ascética no es tanto una renuncia como una preparación. Dicha preparación se lleva a cabo desprendiéndose de cuanto le ata, pero, de manera paradójica, con ello se puede alcanzar una verdadera posesión de sí. No obstante, su obra más elevada y obra capital de la literatura universal en lo que a reflexión introspectiva se refiere es Las Moradas o Castillo Interior. Se simboliza aquí el proceso de purificación, iluminación y unión del alma con Dios por medio de un castillo a través de cuyas moradas debe pasar el alma hasta llegar al centro. Su estilo es llano y sencillo, y al mismo tiempo muy rico, como si fuera la voz del pueblo.

 

***

Sebastián Gámez Millán

_________________

Nota

La anterior semblanza pertenece al libro de Sebastián Gámez Millán, 100 filósofos y pensadores españoles y latinoamericanos, Madrid, Ilusbooks, 2016, pp. 52 y 53.

 

***

 

Citas escogidas sobre Teresa de Jesús 

 

“Por una sola página de Santa Teresa pueden darse infinitos celebrados libros de nuestra literatura y de las extrañas, y por la gloria que nuestro país tiene en haberla producido, cambiaría yo de buen grado, si hubiéramos de perder una de ambas cosas, toda la gloria militar que oprime y fatiga nuestros anales”.

(Menéndez Pelayo – 1877)

 

“Otros pueblos nos han dejado sobre todo Instituciones, libros; nosotros hemos dejado almas. Santa Teresa vale por cualquier “Instituto”, por cualquier Crítica de la razón pura”.

(Unamuno, Del sentimiento trágico de la vida – 1912)

 

“¿Se quiere una manifestación espontánea, fuerte, poderosa del pensamiento castellano? Ahí está el misticismo. Entre los místicos españoles, ¿qué figura es la que más destaca, la más alta, la más gloriosa? Santa Teresa de Jesús”.

(Azorín, Lecturas españolas – 1922)

 

“Teresa de Jesús no conoció el odio en su vida. Fue toda amor”.

(Ramón J. Sender, El verbo se hizo carne – 1931)

 

“-Por tanto, en aquel momento los filósofos místicos eran ya para usted más importantes que un Hegel o un Kant…

-Infinitamente más. Santa Teresa de Ávila desempeñó un papel muy importante en mi vida y la biografía de Edith Stein me conmovió profundamente… ¿Sabe usted cómo se convirtió? Un día fue a casa de una amiga filósofa y, como ésta le había dejado una nota en la que le decía que regresaría al cabo de una hora, Edith Stein, mientras esperaba, se encontró con la vida de Santa Teresa de Ávila y se quedó completamente prendada… Este es el origen de su conversión. (…) Teres de Ávila tiene un tono que efectivamente te conmueve. (…) Santa Teresa me enseñó muchísimo, yo me sentí “literariamente” conmocionado, pero con la fe se nace (…) Yo sentía una admiración sin límites por Teresa de Ávila, por su fiebre, por la faceta “contagiosa”. Pero no estaba hecho para la fe; sigue siendo para mí una de las personas más atractivas”.

(E. M. Cioran, Conversaciones – 1994)

 

“Como Juan de la Cruz, Teresa de Jesús buscó salir, escapar de las dicotomías en que se sentía apresada (hombres/mujeres, ricos/pobres, cristianos viejos/conversos, cultos/iletrados…) y de las que socialmente no es posible salir. Precisamente por esto, su proyecto vital, que es una entrega a la vida del espíritu, entendida en su raíz amorosa y que consiste en la anulación del yo (soporte de cualquier identidad para los otros, identidad misma) para perderse en una experiencia de superior identidad con lo divino, se traduce también a la vez –por su virtualidad expansiva (fundar conventos, difundir un modo de vida) y por su propia forma de ser (arraigada en el mundo, con los pies en la tierra– en una reafirmación del yo”.

(Olvido García Valdés, El castillo interior y el mundo – 2015)

 

***

Sebastián Gámez Millán

 

Autor
Categories: Filosofía, Literatura

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