Tan lejos, tan cerca – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Tan lejos, tan cerca – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Tan lejos, tan cerca

 

***

 

Herbert List – Goldfish Bowl, Santorini, Greece [1937 – The Met – Metropolitan Museum of Art – New York City – Ford Motor Company Collection, Gift of Ford Motor Company and John C. Waddell, 1987]

***

Entre las no pocas ventanas de la realidad que percibo a través de esta sugerente fotografía de Herbert List, Pecera, de un tiempo a esta parte veo el drama de los inmigrantes, que tantas veces acaba en tragedia. En la fotografía de List observamos a un pez dentro de una reducida pecera, con el mar al fondo, iluminado por una estela de luz.

Pues bien, en lugar del pez veo a un inmigrante encerrado en las asfixiantes circunstancias que le cercan por el hecho, tan azaroso como que nosotros hayamos nacido a este lado, de haber nacido en el mundo allí. Pongamos en África. Desde esa reducida pecera percibe el mar, y en él, o más allá de él, su paraíso y su salvación.

Al parecer son 14 kilómetros la distancia que separa a un continente de otro, pero en realidad la distancia entre África y Europa, al menos en formas de vida, es abismal. Salvo que no existe continente, país o ciudad donde no convivan esas distancias en las que al lado del lujo más opulento encontremos empobrecimiento.

Si contemplamos el cielo, miramos el mar o nos detenemos en la inagotablemente asombrosa naturaleza, podemos pensar con el poeta que “el mundo está bien hecho”. Pero, desde luego, está fatalmente distribuido. Y la cosa no parece que vaya a cambiar mientras permanezcamos de esta manera. El Roto se preguntaba: “Cómo será el lugar de donde vienen, para que se alegren de llegar a donde llegan…”

Es cierto que por naturaleza somos diferentes y que, como decía Montaigne, “jamás existieron en el mundo dos opiniones idénticas, ni dos pelos, ni dos granos de cereal iguales”, concluyendo que “la diversidad es la cualidad más universal”. Pero lo que nos dignifica como seres humanos es concebir que debemos ser iguales bajo una misma ley, a pesar de la caprichosa y desigual lotería de la naturaleza.

Tampoco conviene perder de vista que, como señalara Tzvetan Todorov, “cada uno de nosotros es un extranjero en potencia”, pues nadie está exento de que el destino lo arrastre a (sobre)vivir en otros lugares. “Ser civilizado –escribía el búlgaro nacionalizado francés, pero en el fondo ciudadano del mundo– significa ser capaz de reconocer plenamente la humanidad de los otros, aunque tengan rostros y hábitos diferentes a los nuestros; saber ponerse en su lugar y mirarnos a nosotros mismos como desde fuera”. En nuestros días actuar así es un imperativo ético.
Quizá sea en esta vulnerabilidad que compartimos donde deberíamos depositar el peso de lo que nos une, que tendría que ser mayor que el que nos separa. Por encima de esas diferencias insignificantes, como el color de la piel o el lugar donde hemos sido arrojados al mundo, diferencias que rara vez son fruto de nuestro esfuerzo, de nuestras elecciones, de nuestros méritos y, por consiguiente, deberían carecer del valor que se les otorga. Lo que compartimos es nuestra común humanidad, nuestra idéntica vulnerabilidad, esa por la que todos hemos sido, somos y seremos extranjeros.

Pero no seamos populistas, seamos realistas: no basta con cambiar nuestra concepción de los extranjeros y tener buenas intenciones. Europa y África, por no hablar de otros lugares del planeta, necesitan una política estructural para tratar a los emigrantes como lo que son, personas, unas políticas humanas a la vez que responsables. La vieja y escéptica Europa, que perdió la hegemonía tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial, podría ir recuperándola con la autoridad moral de quien ejerce el poder tal como es debido, con la máxima libertad, igualdad y solidaridad.

Cuando el crecimiento demográfico desborda la capacidad de integración social de los ciudadanos genera desplazamientos de poblaciones. Es ley de vida. La historia es y seguirá siendo inconcebible sin estos movimientos migratorios. Según la ONU, en 2030 la población de la ribera sur del Mediterráneo contará con más de 500 millones de habitantes, lo que la equiparará a la población de los 28 países europeos actuales. Se prevé que en 2050 la población del continente africano alcance el 25% de la población mundial. Y 50 años más tarde que en África habitarán unos 4000 millones de personas.

Mas no nos engañemos: en realidad, no se rechaza tanto a los extranjeros por ser tales, sino a los pobres, como certeramente ha indicado Adela Cortina. Hace unos 23 años esta filósofa buscó en el diccionario de griego y encontró el término “áporos”, que “se refiere a quien no tiene recursos, a quien no tiene salida, como ocurre con la palabra “aporía”, que significa callejón sin salida”. Así engendró la palabra “aporofobia”, que no la incorporó el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española hasta el 20 de diciembre de 2017. Poco después fue elegida por Fundéu BBVA, la Fundación del Español Urgente, como la palabra del año (2017). Esperemos que no caiga en el olvido y la recordemos año tras año, día tras día, para poner medios, prevenir y mitigar, en la medida de lo posible.

Actualmente hay recursos para todos, pero no tal como los hemos distribuido. En cualquier caso, es urgente organizar el tránsito de emigrantes a fin de que atraviesen el Mediterráneo con mayor seguridad y lleguen a Europa con unos planes de trabajo, pues de lo contrario las mafias seguirán abusando de estas personas.

Es un espejismo que muchos puedan tener las mismas oportunidades laborales y vitales, cuando no pocas personas nacidas y formadas en Europa no encuentran tampoco trabajo o solo en condiciones precarias. Después de los asiáticos, unos 150 millones de personas, son los europeos, con 62 millones, los que más emigran, por encima de los latinoamericanos y los africanos, con 37 y 34 millones respectivamente.

Conviene atajar los problemas desde las raíces, pues como indicaba Fernando Savater, “el primer derecho de los emigrantes es a no tener que abandonar por falta de oportunidades o por sobra de amenazas su país de origen”. ¿Por qué no se coopera y se controlan estos países?

A pesar de que en las últimas décadas proliferan más distopías, es imposible renunciar a los sueños de la razón. Y aunque desconozco el grado de utopía, pues las hay que quizá se puedan realizar a la larga, otras antes y la mayoría nunca, confieso que a veces tengo sueños. Sueño con que políticos de la Comunidad Europea acuerdan con políticos del Norte de África un intercambio recíprocamente enriquecedor: ofrecer a empresarios invertir y construir empresas con el fin de crear un tejido industrial que propague riqueza económica, material y social, y poco a poco se extienda por el continente y el mundo para que no se vean forzados a emigrar buscando otra vida y desapareciendo en las fauces invisibles del mar.

***

Sebastián Gámez Millán

Autor

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