Una joya en el centro de Madrid: el Real Observatorio Astronómico – Agustín Laviña

Una joya en el centro de Madrid: el Real Observatorio Astronómico – Agustín Laviña
[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]En el Centro de Madrid tenemos un singular monumento del Siglo XVIII que muy pocos madrileños conocen. Se trata del Real Observatorio Astronómico situado en el extremo sur del Parque del Retiro, en el llamado cerro de San Blas. Hoy día no es posible la observación de los astros desde este lugar debido a la contaminación lumínica en las cercanías de la plaza de Atocha. No obstante es una joya de la arquitectura que debemos visitar y en su día fue un importante lugar de investigación de fenómenos astronómicos, geodésicos y meteorológicos.

Fue fundado por iniciativa de Carlos III a sugerencia de Jorge Juan, Capitán de la Compañía de Guardias Marinas desde 1751. Este gran marino e investigador español había sido uno de los participantes que, junto Antonio de Ulloa y otros científicos franceses de la Academia de Ciencias de París, Louis Godin y Charles Marie de La Condomine, realizaron una expedición al Perú que se prolongó más de 8 años (de 1736 a 1744),  con objeto de medir un arco de meridiano ecuatorial y demostrar de esta forma el achatamiento polar de La Tierra, idea que ya había predicho Isaac Newton.

Al volver de dicho viaje convenció a las autoridades españolas para colocar a España en la senda de las potencias científicas europeas, a cuya cabeza estaban Francia e Inglaterra. Con tal motivo y a propuesta de Jorge Juan se crean dos importantes Instituciones, en primer lugar en 1753 bajo el mandato del Marqués de la Ensenada nace el ROA (Real Observatorio de la Armada), ubicado en el Castillo de la Villa (Cádiz) sede de la Academia de Guardias Marinas. Con ello se pretendía que los futuros oficiales de la Marina aprendiesen y dominasen una ciencia tan necesaria para la navegación como era entonces la Astronomía. Posteriormente fue trasladado a San Fernando (Cádiz).

Años después, en 1790, se inicia la construcción del Real Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid, cuyo proyecto y obra inicial es dirigido por el arquitecto oficial de Carlos III, Juan de Villanueva. El Observatorio formaba parte de una misma campaña ilustrada de creación de establecimientos vinculados al estudio de la Ciencias Naturales en el entorno del Paseo del Prado de San Jerónimo. El reinado apostaba por el conocimiento de las Ciencias y por ello se proyectó esta Colina de las Ciencias compuesto por el Museo de Historia Natural, hoy pinacoteca del Prado, el Jardín Botánico y el Observatorio Astronómico. El edificio se concibe como Templo de la Razón y de la Ciencia.

El Observatorio consta de tres lugares destacados: el edificio Villanueva, el telescopio Herschel y la Sala de la Tierra y el Universo.

El edificio Villanueva de estilo neoclásico contiene:

La rotonda central con un interesante péndulo de Foucault, una serie de telescopios reflectores.

Una bellísima biblioteca donde, además de libros históricos, contienen las primeras fotografías de eclipses de Sol y una medida histórica a principios del siglo XX de la aceleración de la gravedad g con una precisión de seis decimales.

Una sala con colección de diversos relojes y el círculo meridiano donde, por medio del movimiento de la culminación de las estrellas de referencia al pasar por el meridiano, se medía oficialmente el tiempo en España cuya información horaria se daba diariamente al Ministerio de la Gobernación sito en la Puerta del Sol.

Telescopio de Herschel

Cuando se decidió la construcción del edificio se encargó un gran telescopio al mejor fabricante de la época, William Herschel. En realidad se trataba de un músico alemán residente en el sur de Inglaterra, pero su gran afición era la Astronomía para lo cual construía sin lugar a dudas los mejores telescopios de reflexión de la época. Por ello todos los aristócratas europeos le encargaban la fabricación de estos instrumentos. El pulido del espejo cóncavo era clave para que la óptica del aparato permitiera observar los astros con grandes aumentos, y, lo que es más importante, captando toda su luz.

Hay que tener en cuenta que un Telescopio como el que hay en el Observatorio con un espejo de 50 cm de diámetro frente a los 5 mm de nuestra pupila, es capaz de captar (500/5)2 = 10.000 veces más de luz; de esta forma podremos observar estrellas, nebulosas y galaxias de baja luminosidad que a simple vista no podríamos detectar.

Herschel, con la ayuda de su hermana pequeña Caroline, catalogó más de 20.000 nuevos objetos celestes y descubrió el movimiento del planeta Urano, conocido desde la antigüedad pero que, al considerar que estaba en reposo, se confundía con una estrella fija. Este hecho le llevó a una disputa con el astrónomo Real y Director del Observatorio de Greenwich, Nevil Maskelyne. Éste no podía creer que un advenedizo de la Astronomía como era Herschel hubiera descubierto un séptimo planeta y le acusó de falsedad. No obstante tuvo que cambiar de opinión cuando al visitar, con una delegación oficial con otros astrónomos, el Observatorio del músico alemán y observar por su telescopio pudo comprobar el movimiento del astro y con ello aceptar el descubrimiento del nuevo planeta. Finalmente no tuvo más remedio que dar la razón al músico alemán.

EL Observatorio de Madrid encargó a Herschel la construcción de varios telescopios pequeños y uno grande de 25 pies (7,62 m) con un espejo de unos 60 cm de diámetro. Se encargó al astrónomo español José de Mendoza y Ríos que se trasladase a Inglaterra para que siga de cerca la construcción del mismo y realizase asimismo la realización de los planos que posibilitasen el montaje del mismo en Madrid. El 7 de enero de 1802 el instrumento y su material accesorio zarparía en el bergantín la Juana hacia Bilbao. A su llegada es montado en cuatro grandes carros y en varias carretas adicionales. El viaje hacia Madrid estuvo lleno de peripecias, pero nada comparado con el accidente que tuvo en el puerto de Orduña el jefe de taller de instrumentos y mejor especialista con que contaba el Observatorio, Carlos Rodríguez, el cual falleció parece ser que al caer de su caballo y golpearse mortalmente la cabeza contra una roca.

Tras un complicado montaje en el edifico construido para tal fin y después de una visita del rey Carlos IV, se realizó la primera observación el 18 de agosto de 1804. Era el segundo telescopio más grande del mundo- pero el primero en calidad óptica- por lo que situaba a España en una excelente posición para el desarrollo de la ciencia. El propio Herschel, que utilizaba un telescopio similar para sus observaciones, financiadas por la Corona británica, afirmaba: “Urano está mejor definido en este instrumento que lo que jamás he visto».

Con la llegada de las tropas napoleónicas en 1808 se consideró este lugar como estratégico, y fue elegido como polvorín por el ejército francés. Para soportar el frio invernal se utilizó como combustible tanto el tubo como la montura. No obstante, el espejo, tornos y poleas fueron trasladados por los astrónomos a un lugar más seguro, la casa de un comerciante llamado Brugada. El edificio quedó parcialmente destruido. En el año 1851 la reina Isabel II reinaugura el Observatorio pero sin la presencia del gran telescopio.

Con todo esto, 200 años después de su primera instalación, en el año 2001, el Instituto Geográfico Nacional inició el proceso para hacer una réplica exacta del Telescopio de Herschel. La construcción, muy meticulosa, se realizó utilizando madera de roble en los astilleros de Bermeo (Vizcaya), además del montaje de las piezas y las primeras pruebas de eficacia. Desmontado, se trasladó al Real Observatorio de Madrid (ROM) en 2004, siendo inaugurado en 2010, coincidiendo con la finalización de las obras de acondicionamiento de los edificios y la construcción de un nuevo pabellón, acristalado, para alojar el famoso telescopio.

Sala de las Ciencias de la Tierra y el Universo

Incluye la maravillosa colección de instrumentos de Astronomía, Geodesia y Geofísica, de los siglos XIX y XX. Entre ellos cabe destacar diversos sismógrafos, los primeros planos cartográficos del Observatorio pero sobre todo la regla diseñada por el general de Ingenieros, Carlos Ibáñez Ibero.

Se trataba de una regla de platino de aproximadamente cuatro metros. El proceso de medida consistía en ir desplazando la regla, alineándola con la dirección de la base y repitiendo las mediciones sucesivamente. Se utilizó a partir del año 1858 para cartografiar el territorio nacional empezando por Madridejos (Toledo). Fue la base de la moderna cartografía nacional y el instrumento fue “la envidia” de los países europeos de manera que británicos, franceses y alemanes fabricaron reglas semejantes.

Agustín Laviña[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_gallery type=»image_grid» images=»1574″ img_size=»300×300″ css_animation=»none» title=»Primeros trabajos empleando la Regla Cartográfica de Ibáñez de Íbero en Madridejos (Toledo) – Fotografía de 1855″][vc_single_image image=»1575″ img_size=»300×300″ onclick=»link_image» title=»Péndulo de Foucault»][vc_single_image image=»1577″ img_size=»300×300″ onclick=»link_image» title=»ROA de Madrid – Sala de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Universo»][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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