Cosmopolitismo, patriotismo y nacionalismo – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Cosmopolitismo, patriotismo y nacionalismo – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Cosmopolitismo, patriotismo y nacionalismo

 

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Para pensar con cierta autonomía, algo que no debemos perder de vista es reflexionar sobre la materia que constituye el pensamiento, que es el lenguaje. Según el filósofo Jesús Mosterín: “El lenguaje ayuda a solucionar muchos de nuestros problemas reales, pero también crea otros nuevos problemas y seudoproblemas que sin él no existirían. Mediante el lenguaje podemos decirlo todo, lo que hay y lo que no hay, lo verdadero y lo falso, lo real y lo imaginario, lo sensato y lo absurdo (…) El papel del lenguaje es central en el adoctrinamiento político y religioso y en cualquier tipo de lavado de cerebro. El fundamentalismo es una enfermedad de la palabra”. El problema es que no basta con acudir al diccionario, tenemos que resolver la cuestión nosotros en medio de una guerra incesante de palabras.

Contra la grandilocuencia y el hechizo de las palabras que emanan de ideologías fundamentalistas que acaban generando violencia y derramamiento de sangre, y que puede ser tanto el patriotismo como el nacionalismo, nos previno el poeta José Emilio Pacheco con “Alta traición”, que es una crítica minimalista, in sotto voce e irónica a la noción de “patria”, una deconstrucción de lo que hay detrás del término con el que en no pocas ocasiones juegan políticos e instituciones a fin de legitimar el sacrificio y la muerte.

Alta traición

No amo mi patria.
Su fulgor abstracto
es inasible.
Pero (aunque suene mal)
daría la vida
por diez lugares suyos,
cierta gente,
puertos, bosques de pinos,
fortalezas,
una ciudad deshecha,
gris, monstruosa,
varias figuras de su historia,
montañas
-y tres o cuatro ríos.

La alta traición comienza en el primer verso, al declarar que no ama su patria, sentimiento al que parece que estaríamos condenados por el hecho de haber nacido en un terruño, cosa que hasta donde me consta nadie eligió. A continuación, en los que seguramente sean los dos versos más resplandecientes del poema, indica el motivo por el que no la ama: “su fulgor abstracto / es inasible”. Detrás de la palabra “patria”, como detrás de tantas palabras que provienen de ideologías patrióticas, nacionalistas, dictatoriales y totalitaristas, hay en no pocas ocasiones lógicas sacrificiales y sanguinarias.

Deconstruida la noción de “patria” como concepto abstracto bajo el que se puede cometer cualquier acción, emplea una expresión reveladora sobre a dónde nos puede conducir “la patria” mal entendida y practicada: a dar la vida por ella. Pero aquí el poeta lo hace con ironía (“aunque suene mal”). ¿Qué es lo que suena mal? Disentir, llevar la contraria, opinar de forma diferente: en suma, la libertad de expresión y el consiguiente pluralismo que no se admite en los estados autoritarios o dictatoriales.

Y en un giro inesperado sigue describiendo con una breve y sencilla enumeración lo que significa para él la patria: ciertos lugares, personas, paisajes… Patria que se corresponde más bien a la escala humana de los humanos. Alejada, pues, de las abstracciones fulgurantes, vagas y difusas que usan ideologías autoritarias, dictatoriales y totalitarias para sus intereses, que con frecuencia van contra los intereses de los ciudadanos.

Pero no se confunda “patriotismo” con “patrioterismo”. Un país con una notoria tradición de “patriotas” (y también “patrioteros”, reconozcámoslo) como Estados Unidos sabe encajar mejor los dardos de sus críticos. ¿Acaso intelectuales como Noam Chomsky o Susan Sontag, por no dejar de ser muy críticos con el gobierno norteamericano, han sido exiliados o despreciados? Creo que esto también mide la calidad de una democracia: la capacidad de criticar sin perder de vista por ello lo que nos une, lo común.

Si tuviera que decantarme por alguna postura cívico-política, prefiero el cosmopolitismo (no el “cosmopaletismo”, sin duda más abundante), que surgió con Sócrates en Occidente, se desarrolló con el estoicismo de Séneca y germinó en la Ilustración, con Kant y Goethe. Cosmopolita significa etimológicamente “ciudadano del mundo”, y es el que reconoce lo excelente, provenga de donde provenga, algo que al patriotero y al nacionalista le resulta imposible. Aunque ambas defienden “patria” y “nación”, entiendo que “patriotismo” y “nacionalismo” son posturas cívico-políticas diferentes: mientras que la segunda, por la lógica excluyente que arrastra consigo, divide y separa (no hay más que revisar la historia o levantar la vista), la primera bien practicada crea comunidad y se beneficia de ello.

 

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Sebastián Gámez Millán

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