Hacia la paz, perpetuamente – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Hacia la paz, perpetuamente – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Hacia la paz, perpetuamente

 

***

No seamos ingenuos, la paz definitiva no se alcanzará nunca, no es más que un sueño de la razón, una utopía inalcanzable. Basta con levantar la vista para observar que allá donde hay vida hay guerra. Una antigua sentencia, que recordaba Freud, y que parece que no pocos padres siguen inculcando a sus hijos, sostiene: “Si vis pacem, para bellum” (“Si quieres conservar la paz, prepárate para la guerra”). ¿Pero no hay una contradicción entre nuestros deseos de alcanzar la paz y este modo de actuar, esta supuesta educación?

Martin Luther King se percató de que a lo largo de la historia innumerables gobernadores han pretendido alcanzar la paz por medio de la guerra, o por lo menos con este fingido y problemático argumento trataban de justificar sus decisiones bélicas, lo cual no es sino una contradicción que nos conduce a un callejón sin salida donde siempre nos topamos con la violencia que mata, que nos instrumentaliza y cosifica. Ante ello Luther King proponía que medios y fines deben ir de la mano, en consonancia, de tal manera que para luchar por la paz lo hagamos con medios pacíficos.

 

 

 

Es lo que había hecho de forma ejemplar Gandhi liderando la lucha contra los abusos del imperialismo británico en la India: responder a la violencia con no violencia. Quizá sea el único modo de salir del círculo vicioso y mortífero. Apelar a la reciprocidad, uno de los fundamentos de la ética, interpelar al otro para que cobre conciencia de su error y de que el uso de la violencia está fuera de las reglas del juego cívico y político. Pero si no estamos ahí todos unidos, defendiendo a las víctimas, contra los verdugos, me temo que acabará siendo insuficiente.

A pesar de que en el pasado siglo XX tuvieron lugar las llamadas dos guerras mundiales e interminables ramificaciones de sangrientos conflictos, el proceso de civilización no está por completo perdido. El que probablemente sea el estudio más documentado y riguroso sobre la violencia de las últimas décadas, Los ángeles que llevamos dentro. El declive de la violencia y sus implicaciones, de Steven Pinker, Catedrático de Psicología en Harvard, un volumen con más de mil páginas de análisis, estadísticas, comparaciones e interpretaciones, defiende que nuestra época es menos violenta y cruel y más pacífica que cualquier período histórico anterior.

Pinker señala cinco fuentes de procedencia que mitigan la violencia: los gobiernos, sobre todo los democráticos, que penalizan las agresiones; el comercio, que contribuye a que se consideren las personas más valiosas vivas que muertas; la expansión de la razón, que reconoce la violencia como un problema para el desarrollo de la vida humana; el cosmopolitismo, que diluye las fronteras entre las culturas y entre “lo nuestro” y “lo suyo”; y el feminismo, que devalúa el machismo y con él la violencia que arrastra consigo la estructura patriarcal.

A juicio de este psicólogo, es el filósofo Kant, que curiosamente no creía en la bondad de la naturaleza humana, el que en el ensayo Hacia la paz perpetúa ha argumentado de forma más racional cómo desplegar la paz entre los seres humanos. A Kant, con una de las formulaciones del imperativo categórico (“Actúa de tal modo que trates a los otros como fines en sí mismos y nunca meramente como medios”), le debemos no solo la fundamentación teórica de los Derechos Humanos, también la inspiración de instituciones como la O.N.U., pero no sé por qué en su imaginación actuaba de modo más razonable y justa.

Otro de los fenómenos que provoca violencia, desequilibrios y guerras son las desigualdades. La Globalización, que es la creciente interdependencia económica-política de los diferentes países y culturas del mundo, según el diagnóstico de algunos economistas, como el Premio Nobel (2001) Joseph E. Stiglitz, puede generar riqueza, pero a la vez causa desigualdades, como denunciara en El malestar en la globalización. Dado que a estas alturas parece imposible bajarse de la locomotora de la globalización, Stiglitz defiende “reformar la globalización para que no funcione sólo para los ricos y los países industrializados, sino también para los pobres y los países menos desarrollados”.

Siguiendo la estela de Kant, Otfried Höffe ha propuesto “la diversidad de las culturas bajo la unidad de una ley global”. Una vez más el problema es quiénes establecen esas leyes y sirviendo qué causas. La paz definitiva, repito, nunca la veremos. Sin embargo, sigue siendo imprescindible que contribuyamos cada uno a construirla, pues sin paz no puede desarrollarse civilizadamente la vida de los seres humanos. Al igual que valores esenciales como la libertad, la igualdad y la justicia, la paz es la condición de posibilidad de otros valores irrenunciables. Por ello siempre estaremos encaminados hacia la paz, perpetuamente.

 

Francisco de Goya – Duelo a garrotazos [Museo del Prado]

***

Sebastián Gámez Millán

 

 

 

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