Machu Picchu, donde las montañas y las piedras habitadas rozan el cielo – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Machu Picchu, donde las montañas y las piedras habitadas rozan el cielo – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Machu Picchu, donde las montañas y las piedras habitadas rozan el cielo

 

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Abandonada en torno a 1534, nadie, salvo los quechuas, conocía esta misteriosa ciudadela que fue “descubierta” por el arqueólogo Hiran Bingham en 1911, guiado por unos lugareños. Enmarcada en un paisaje de montañas y selvas cautivador, se considera el más importante legado de la cultura inca. Es Patrimonio de la Humanidad y una de las ocho maravillas del mundo moderno. Su emplazamiento en un área casi inaccesible elevado a unos 2500 m se debe a razones estratégicas, pero a la vez a un privilegiado enclave simbólico en la cadena de montañas sagradas del Tahuantisuyo, hermanado el Machu Picchu con otros picos en cuyas cimas se levantaron altares religiosos y observatorios astronómicos.

Hay ciudadelas incas a mayor altura, como las ruinas de Pisac, con su laberinto de callejuelas a cerca de 3.500 m sobre el nivel del mar, bajo unas terrazas ordenadas en perfecta geometría que sostienen la tierra y sirven de cultivo, frente a la pared vertical de una montaña que es al mismo tiempo un cementerio. Aun siendo impresionantes estas ruinas del Valle Sagrado, como lo son de otra manera las de Ollantaytambo, aún más hermosas, no alcanzan la sobrecogedora belleza del santuario de Machu Picchu, que no solo se debe a la calidad arquitectónica, sino a una milagrosa conjunción de naturaleza y cultura, los dos elementos que componen la evolución humana.

Cuando uno contempla estas ruinas desde la cabaña del guardián de la roca funeraria, para mi gusto el mejor mirador, conmovido por el vértigo de la belleza y la historia, piensa en el desafío de erigir esta ciudadela en un medio tan inhóspito, bordeada por los escalofriantes precipicios del Cañón del Urumbamba, cuyas aguas retumban con fuerza abajo, y rodeada de una naturaleza salvaje y exuberante. El santuario de Machu Picchu se divide en dos grandes áreas: la urbana, que alberga más de 175 recintos de distintas categorías y tamaños, con palacios, edificios ceremoniales, viviendas y depósitos, comunicados por una red de escalinatas y callejas; y la agrícola, una inmensa sucesión de canales y prodigiosas terrazas de cultivo enlazadas por escaleras y escalinatas de gradas que se mimetizan armónicamente con las formaciones geológicas de las montañas, como si las hubiera esculpido la infatigable mano de la naturaleza. Este es el encanto de las ruinas, que las piedras se hagan uno con el paisaje.

Y en cierto modo simboliza la victoria, siquiera momentánea, de la arquitectura sobre la naturaleza. Esto es la evolución cultural, aquella que emulando la naturaleza, logra prolongarla y mejorarla para el bienestar humano.

 

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Sebastián Gámez Millán

Autor

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