Las cataratas de Iguazú: la naturaleza en estado sublime – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Las cataratas de Iguazú: la naturaleza en estado sublime – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Las cataratas de Iguazú: la naturaleza en estado sublime

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La naturaleza es una fuente de asombro, admiración y maravilla que no cesa. Sin embargo, no recuerdo haber visto a la naturaleza en otro estado comparable a las cataratas de Iguazú. Si a menudo nos resulta insuficiente cualquier definición de “belleza”, todavía más sucede con lo “sublime”. Kant lo definió como “aquello que, aun pudiendo tan sólo ser pensado, hace patente una capacidad del ánimo que sobrepasa cualquier patrón de medida de los sentidos. (…) Así pues, la naturaleza es sublime en aquellos de sus fenómenos cuya intuición lleva consigo la idea de su infinitud”.

Por consiguiente, “lo sublime” es “la imposibilidad de representar por medio de la imaginación unas ideas (como el infinito, la libertad o la totalidad) que son intrínsecamente imposibles de representar porque son ab-solutae”. Ese absoluto es contemplar la naturaleza haciéndose a sí misma; es observar cautivado cómo emana la necesidad de la evolución natural, si es que no son una y la misma cosa, y se muestra en los caminos que abre el curso del agua, en las inconcebibles formas de los troncos y de las lianas de la selva…

Con mayor altura que las del Niágara, entre Canadá y Estados Unidos, y más longitud que las Victoria, entre Zimbabwe, Zambia y Botsuana, las cataratas de Iguazú son un conjunto de 275 saltos de agua entre las fronteras de Argentina y Brasil. El más impresionante de todos estos saltos es la Garganta del Diablo, de unos 80 metros de altura y un enorme caudal. Cuando estás ante ella es difícil no sentirte sobrecogido y anonadado, sin poder apartar la vista y el oído ante la magnitud de tal fenómeno.

 

 

Se pueden visitar desde el parque nacional de Brasil o desde el parque nacional de Argentina. Lo mejor es recorrer ambos, que nos ofrecen perspectivas complementarias. El de Brasil ofrece una visión panorámica más amplia, y nos permite por medio de una pasarela asomarnos a la Garganta del Diablo desde casi abajo. En cambio, el de Argentina nos permite por medio de unos 7 km. de pasarelas adentrarnos en el bosque de araucarias, escuchando los macucos o viendo cómo se cruzan monos y coatíes, hasta que de súbito el sonido atronador del agua nos advierte que en seguida nos sorprenderá otra cascada.

Uno cobra conciencia de su finitud ante la infinitud de la naturaleza, lo que por un lado nos sirve para descubrir la verdadera medida humana; pero, por otro lado, lo sublime nos desborda e impulsa a ir más allá. Con lo “sublime”, Kant apunta “a aquello que es digno de admiración y de respeto, en la medida en que muestra al mismo tiempo nuestra desproporción y nuestra superioridad de seres racionales, como es el caso del `cielo estrellado por encima de mí´ y de la `ley moral en mí´”.
Se diría que nos admiramos de lo exterior a la vez que crecemos y nos admiramos de lo interior, pues si no estuviera en nosotros la capacidad de admirarnos, ¿cómo podríamos admirarlo? ¿Acaso lo admiran otras especies? Según Kant, “lo bello nos prepara para amar sin interés algo, incluso la naturaleza; lo sublime, para valorarlo altamente incluso en contra de nuestro interés (sensible)”.

 

 

Cuando los primeros pensadores de Occidente se preguntaban por el arché, cuál es el principio del que se deriva la realidad, Tales de Mileto, considerado por algunos como el primer especulador filosófico y científico de Grecia y Occidente, mantuvo que el agua. Teniendo en cuenta que es una intuición de hace unos 2500 años, es de un genial alcance. No sé si basta por sí misma el agua, tal vez se requiera su aleación con otros elementos. Pero desde luego es uno de los orígenes de la vida, y sin duda el elemento dominante del planeta Tierra. Los paisajes de Iguazú rezuman agua. Se aprecia la vasta erosión que ha desplegado, alterando el ecosistema, y las imprevisibles formas con las que moldea las piedras. No hay ningún escultor más grande que la naturaleza, y dentro de ella, ninguna mano tan paciente y poderosa como la del agua.

 

 

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Sebastián Gámez Millán

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