Trump o el arte de tener la razón – Fabio Vélez

Trump o el arte de tener la razón – Fabio Vélez

Trump o el arte de tener la razón

 

 

 

Desde hace años, G. Lakoff y su equipo nos han venido alertando acerca de un prejuicio harto extendido y que parece embargarnos a todos más o menos por igual, con nefastas consecuencias en todo caso. Este, denominado “trampa racionalista”, sostiene lo siguiente: que es falso suponer una razón pura o, dicho de otro modo, libre de sesgos y pasiones, y que, en virtud de lo anterior, los tan manidos “hechos” ni ostentan la fuerza de la evidencia, ni a estos ha de secundarle una adhesión súbita o cosa parecida. Sobra decir que la llegada de Trump al poder es prueba, no única pero sí ejemplar, de que Lakoff –y antes otros como Spinoza o Maquiavelo– no andaban del todo equivocados.

Pues bien, tras detenerme estas últimas semanas en el análisis de su nutrida colección de afrentas, he podido constatar, no sin cierto estupor, que Trump hace gala de una pericia inusual en el campo de la sofística y, en concreto, en el uso y abuso del argumento ad personam. Lean bien: ad personam, no ad hominem. Esta aparente, aunque falsa, sinonimia ameritaría alguna suerte escrutinio. Sea.

No parece casual, a este respecto, que en su lista de útiles efectivos para ese distinguido arte de la dialéctica, Schopenhauer optara por orillarlo nada menos que a modo de colofón. Según él, el problema, fruto de la erística (pues de esta se trataba), se debía a que lejos de ocuparnos genuinamente en el esclarecimiento de la verdad, nos parecíamos conformar, en un sutil pero hondo desplazamiento, con la mera obtención de la razón. Se comprende, de esta guisa, el contexto forzado y limítrofe que Schopenhauer, pese a todo, aceptaba dar a la estrategia falaz: « [el uso del argumento ad personam hace alarde] cuando se advierte que el adversario es superior y se las tiene de perder, se procede ofensiva, grosera y ultrajantemente».

Si entiendo bien la argucia, esta, cual extrema ratio, apelaba a lo peor del ser humano: la vileza y la violencia. Aceptado lo cual, no era menos cierto que Schopenhauer hacía corresponder el éxito de su popularidad con el hecho de que todo el mundo pudiera, “democráticamente”, ponerla en práctica, esto es, realizarla sin especiales impedimentos. Ello no obstaba para que, a línea seguida, el filósofo lanzara asimismo una preocupante advertencia: una réplica de igual o superior intensidad transformaría inexorablemente a toda querella inicial en «pelea, duelo o proceso por injurias».

Si a lo anterior se suma además su especial predilección por la exornación retórica, y en particular por la hipérbole, la mise en place debería despertar cierta alarma. Solo a modo de ejemplo –y dando por supuesto que D. Trump haya escrito de su puño y letra sus gestas biográficas (por ej., Trump. The Art of the Deal)– sirva este consejo mefistofélico del magnate: «La clave para la auto-promoción es la bravuconada. Yo juego con las fantasías de la gente (…) A esto lo denomino hipérbole veraz. Es una manera inocente de exageración».

En virtud de lo dicho, no parece superfluo airear alguna suerte de corolario. Por lo pronto, y si alcanzo a entrever correctamente lo que está en juego, todo parece indicar que tendremos que empezar a desarrollar una paciencia extraordinaria para no vernos inmersos en altercados que, me temo, irán normalizándose paulatinamente. En efecto, tratándose del presidente de EE. UU., va a resultar sumamente complicado seguir la máxima de Aristóteles, es decir, aquella que prudentemente nos aconsejaba ignorar a todo aquel que nos saliera al paso con deseos de pleito, y máxime si al susodicho le precedía la cuestionable fama de pendenciero (como parece el caso).

Por ello, y como antídoto inmediato, se me ocurre que tal vez no fuera un dislate empezar a distribuir y divulgar entre la población el Diálogo de la verdadera honra militar (1566) de Gerónimo Ximénez de Urrea, tratado en el que se socavaba cualquier conato de honra o vanidad huecas, y se reprendía toda forma de duelo como método resolutivo. Y es que, huelga aceptarlo, estos “nuevos” usos y costumbres nos retrotraen a otros siglos, más cercanos sin duda al célebre parlamento del conde Lozano en Las mocedades del Cid: «Confieso que fue locura, / mas no la quiera enmendar». Pues eso: «sostenella y no enmendalla».

Fabio Vélez Bertomeu

Autor
Categories: Filosofía

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