Con motivo del Bicentenario de Karl Heinrich Marx – Confluencias filosóficas: Kant y Marx – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Con motivo del Bicentenario de Karl Heinrich Marx – Confluencias filosóficas: Kant y Marx – Sebastián Gámez Millán

Con motivo del Bicentenario de Karl Heinrich Marx – Confluencias filosóficas: Marx y Kant

 

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Confieso que he leído y releído Kant y Marx. Un diálogo entre épocas, el texto de la memorable clase magistral con la que Oskar Negt (1934), tan poco traducido al español, a pesar de ser un continuador independiente de la labor crítica de la Escuela de Fráncfort (no en balde se doctoró bajo la dirección de T. W. Adorno (1903-1969) y trabajó como asistente de Jürgen Habermas (1929)), se despidió de su trabajo docente en una sala con casi mil asistentes, entre los que se encontraba el primer Ministro alemán de entonces, Gerhard Schröder, de quien sería consejero.

Pero a cierta edad me importa más lo que uno pueda pensar por sí mismo –signifique esto lo que signifique– que lo que otros hayan dicho. Con la sospecha de que lo que tal vez pudiera aportar en este esbozo pueda quedarse sepultado bajo citas de lo leído, no lo he tenido a mano a la hora de escribir estas líneas. Sin embargo, al lector interesado en seguir el diálogo de estos dos grandes filósofos de la modernidad le resultará fecundo el mencionado texto.

A pesar de que la obra de Karl Marx (1818-1883) se centra sobre todo en cuestiones económico-políticas, sociales y laborales, propias de la época en la que vivió, la Revolución Industrial, mientras que el pensamiento de Kant (1724-1804) se centró especialmente en cuestiones epistemológicas y éticas, el pensamiento de ambos, como procuraremos poner de manifiesto a continuación, confluye en una serie de aspectos ético-políticos esenciales.

En primer lugar, la crítica al capitalismo de Marx es inconcebible sin un trasfondo ético: el capitalismo es inaceptable porque convierte en mercancías a los seres humanos, de manera que los instrumentaliza, cosa que también es inaceptable desde la perspectiva de una de las formulaciones del imperativo categórico de Kant: “Actúa de tal modo que trates a los otros siempre como fines en sí mismos y nunca meramente como medios”. Si tratamos a los otros únicamente como medios, contribuimos a deshumanizarlos y, por el principio de reciprocidad, a deshumanizarnos (lo que hacemos a otros nos lo hacemos a nosotros; lo que nos hacemos a nosotros se lo hacemos a otros). Así pues, tanto para Kant como para Marx el ser humano no tiene no precio sino dignidad.

Es más, si Marx propone cómo acabar con la propiedad privada, piedra fundamental sobre la que se levanta el edificio del capitalismo, es con el fin de que la justicia sea más plena, pues el capitalismo a la vez que genera riqueza (Amartya Sen, 1933) genera desigualdades (Joseph Stiglitz, 1943), muchas veces injustificadas e injustificables. Y sin igualdad entre los seres humanos, al menos de oportunidades, tampoco cabe hablar de justicia. Por tanto, se necesita la igualdad para que haya justicia del mismo modo que se necesita la justicia para que haya igualdad.

Ambos procuran a través de su pensamiento filosófico la emancipación de los seres humanos, pero mientras Kant reivindica el sapere aude, el uso público de la razón y la autonomía, Marx, más consciente de cómo las estructuras de poder y las relaciones económicas nos tienen dominados y alienados, reivindica la abolición de la propiedad privada y la consiguiente destrucción del sistema capitalista. También ambos comparten la idea de la necesidad de la crítica, entendida como la capacidad de juzgar, y sin la cual no podemos alcanzar la mayoría de edad.

En resumen, ambos comparten la idea de que el ser humano no tiene precio, sino dignidad y, por lo tanto, no debe ser instrumentalizado o cosificado bajo ningún concepto, a riesgo de que queramos deshumanizarnos. Se podría decir, pues, que tanto el pensamiento filosófico de Kant como el de Marx se encaminan hacia la emancipación y el progreso de los seres humanos, hacia la libertad, la igualdad y la justicia, ideales a los que difícilmente podemos renunciar, aunque difieren en los medios que critican y necesitan para salir de la encrucijada histórica en la que vivieron, que acaso no está demasiado alejada de la época en la que vivimos.

 

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Sebastián Gámez Millán

 

Autor
Categories: Filosofía

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